timur in nepali

In 1980, traders who settled at the border with India paid Nepalese collectors 1.8 Nepalese rupees (NRs) per kilogram for dried timur. Timur: Red Pepper: तोरी को ... सौफ Souf Aniseed Nepali - English Food Dictionary. Normally, management activities are restricted to occasional policing and licensing of timber harvests by contractors under the direction of the District Forest Office. A gradual increase in management intensity takes place from public lands to private lands as a result of various socio economic and politico-legislative factors. The forests in the lower altitudes are dominated by Pinus roxburghii, which sometimes have an understory of Aesculus indica and Bassia latifolia. The fruits and seeds are used as an aromatic tonic for fever and dyspepsia. And the shrubs are hardly disturbed because animals do not usually browse the thorny shrubs, while timur collection for fuelwood has stopped. These rights are regarded as legitimate by other people living in the area. Like the hamro ban, these management practices mainly involve the regulation of timur harvesting, for example, by setting a date for opening the forest for collection. On the contrary, the presence of timur is increasing because its regeneration has been favored by the opening up of forests due to earlier overexploitation for timber and fodder. This One Trick Got My Hydrangea Cuttings Rooting Like Crazy! This difference in factors inducing intensification may be explained by the characteristics of the tree products involved. After a long journey through the Himalayan mountain range, we were privileged to be able take part in the harvest of this Nepalese endemic berry which grows in the wild along the Mahabharat range. Leaves usually pinnate, Leaflets 2-6 pairs, elliptic-lanceolate, petiole and rachis winged. The group discussions concerned the social organization of groups of people involved in forest management and the collection and trade of timur. Anyways, before the trip I made fresh tomato achar/pickle with Schezwan pepper (Timur in Nepali). Only when ample timur resources were present were villagers interested in defining access rights in order to assure local benefits from the commercial value of timur. The user groups may also decide that the forest is closed for timur collection until the fruit is mature. With increasing timur prices, the rules for timur collection became gradually more rigorous. The discussions and interviews were complemented with semistructured interviews of key informants who had specific knowledge of timur production and trade, such as members of forest user committees, traders, forest service personnel, and political leaders. Concomitant with this process of management intensification, a gradual transformation of the natural ecosystem into a domesticated agroecosystem takes place. Cultivation of timur on terrace risers on private lands. Moreover, the productivity of the timur trees is high due to the fertile soil conditions. It requires less fertile soil than most other fruit trees. Tomato Timur Achar is a flavorful & spicy tomato sauce made with tomatoes, timur (Nepali Sichaun pepper), garlic, & chili peppers. However, hailstorms in spring can destroy the flowers. Translations are not retained in our system. Nepali Mann Udhyog was created in 2010 and all productsare 100% organic and have lots of natural effects on health. The different collection and management practices for timur under various access regimes are summarized in Table 2. Contact, Password Requirements: Minimum 8 characters, must include as least one uppercase, one lowercase letter, and one number or permitted symbol, Access Institutional Sign In via Shibboleth or OpenAthens, https://doi.org/10.1659/0276-4741(2000)020[0136:TZAPIN]2.0.CO;2, Forest management conditions in east Salyan, Characteristics of timur plant and products, The importance of timur collection in Salyan. Join the discussion today. Medicinal Properties: The bark, fruits and seeds are extensively used in indigenous system of medicine as a carminative, stomachic and anthelmintic. The boundaries of such appropriated hamro ban lands often coincide with landmarks such as trails, streams, or rocks. Sarkari ban is viewed as the property of the government by both Forest Department staff and local people. In the upper parts, the pine forests usually merge with oak forests. Villagers are increasingly involved in seasonal wage labor in the study area. (Collectors reported that, if timur shrubs are easily accessible, as is the case on private land, 1 adult can collect a quantity equivalent to 5 kilos after drying. Thus, villagers are free to collect timur fruit in sarkari ban without licenses, and the collection is normally open access. Seeds 2 mm in diametre, oval and dark. For timur owners, such a collection arrangement is only lucrative if timur is present in relatively high densities. Such arrangements for timur collection are an attractive alternative to off-farm employment for marginal farmers. The mature timur trees are pruned and manured with leaflitter. Consequently, evaluation of the socioeconomic characteristics of NTFP production and assessment of the potential of NTFP extraction for sustained management of natural forests has become an important focus of research (Ros-Tonen et al 1995; Ruiz Pérez and Arnold 1996). Red Chilli & Timmur mixed together to create a distinct flavor, that people from Nepal have come to love for generations.. He was a member of the Barlas, a Mongolian tribe that had been turkified in many aspects. An important reason for growing timur on these lands is that its private ownership allows for optimal management. Some timur owners who lack sufficient family labor make a kind of sharecropping arrangement with marginal farmers to collect timur on their lands. Private lands: In the study area, there is no clear-cut dichotomy between community and private property. The timur fruit is carefully collected by hand. The use of nontimber forest products (NTFPs) in tropical forest management is currently receiving greater attention. Products of this medicinal plant are regularly traded with India. Farmers whose lands border hamro ban forests may claim usufruct rights of these forests up to a distance of 20 gauj (approximately 18 m) from their own land. With regard to the de facto control of these forests, two categories can be distinguished. They often lop the branches in order to facilitate collection; such unregulated lopping decreases subsequent fruit production. There is not a clear boundary between natural and cultivated timur stocks but rather a gradual transition from collection of timur from wild resources through increased management of naturally occurring timur stocks and enrichment planting by landowners who claim use rights in forests bordering their croplands to transplanting timur seedlings on private land. It is scientifically known as Zanthoxylum Armatum which belongs to the family of Rutaceae which includes citrus and rue. Recipe. During digestion, seeds are scarified, which stimulates germination. In addition to actual scarcity, intensification of forest management may also result from decreased access to resources as a result of loss of communal lands or restrictions on forest access (Gilmour 1990; Shepherd 1992; Arnold 1995), increased demands for tree products resulting from population growth, or demands from new markets (Homma 1992; Scherr 1995; Filius 1997). This right of shila charnu (literally, going for partial search) allows villagers to collect the remaining timur fruits on the lands of other villagers once the main harvest is over. Nepali Spices English Names. Visit us for Nepali foods, wedding supplies, clothing, Titaura, Handicrafts and products related to Nepali festivals In order to enhance understanding of the evolutionary processes in NTFP production, this article analyzes the different management systems of timur (Zanthoxylum armatum) production in Nepalese forests. Timur shrubs in the forest are more dispersed and collection here takes much more time.) Make Homemade Soft Pretzels and Win the Weekend + Newsletter Shop Site Feedback FAQ / Help Center. Whereas in 1980 the income from the sale of 1 kg of timur could be used to buy 1 kg of rice, in 1995 it could buy 3 kg of rice. Farmers can already begin harvesting 3 years after planting, while many other fruit trees take longer. We know them all but sometimes/somewhere we've trouble remembering their respective English names. The data reported here were obtained as part of a study on the effects of different types of access to land and social networks concerned with the collection and trade of timur in Nepal (Den Hertog 1997). The average revenue generated is over one quarter of the average annual household income. It is often mistaken for black pepper, but has an entirely different flavor and is, in fact, not related to the black pepper family. den Hertog), Estimates of values (in 100s of Nepalese rupees) of NTFPs collected and traded in the Salyan district, Major timur collection and management practices under different types of tenure, Rationale for different timur production practices, Influence of the economic value of timur on timur collection and manage ment practices (NA, not applicable; FUG, forest user group).a. Achar. On croplands, timur is usually grown on terrace risers, where it has minimal impact on agricultural yields. The various management practices have their own rationales, which are related to the nature and degree of control over access to timur trees (Table 3). The local market price of timur has increased considerably in the last 2 decades. Timur was born in Transoxiana near the city of Kesh (modern Shahrisabz, Uzbekistan), some 80 kilometres (50 mi) south of Samarkand, part of what was then the Chagatai Khanate. Registered users receive a variety of benefits including the ability to customize email alerts, create favorite journals list, and save searches. These are important in creating conditions that allow forest users to back up local forest management institutions so they function properly. Factors that influence the selection of collection areas include distance to and density of the resource, access rules, labor efficiency in collecting and managing timur, and market price. Each time, only a small quantity of timur is collected, and consequently the collection season for timur in sarkari ban may last up to 5 months. Use of NTFPs starts with extraction from natural forests but may gradually be intensified to cultivation of domesticated trees. In the case of trees growing on private land, however, farmers own both the land and the tree products. Villagers can collect timur on open-access state lands, community-controlled lands, or private lands. Due to their carminative, stomachic, and anthelmintic properties (CSIR 1985), the fruits, seeds, and bark of timur are extensively used in indigenous medicines. Generally, collectors prefer to pay for a permit from the forest user committee for collection of timur in community forests rather than collect timur in the sarkari ban free of charge. Forest officials and villagers have two opposing (and sometimes conflicting) views of access rights to these forests. Jwano (thyme) in Nepali kitchen Thyme seed, locally known as jwano , is considered to be one of the best sources of nutrients that a body requires. The species naturally occurs as an understory species in forests and on open sites at altitudes between 1000 and 2100 m. According to farmers, timur grows best on sites with deep, moist soils that are also exposed to the sun. The second category of government-owned forests is controlled de facto by local FUGs. Pimienta de Sichuan ( China: 花椒; pinyin: Huajiao) (también pimienta Sichuan, pimienta de Sichuan, fresno espinoso chino, pimienta china, pimienta ratán y pimienta mala) es una firma de especias de la cocina de Sichuan en el suroeste de China la provincia de Sichuan.Cuando se ingiere produce un efecto de hormigueo y adormecimiento debido a la presencia de hidroxi-alfa sanshool en el … they change yearly. Nepali Vegetable English Name. However, since issuing permits to individual collectors is administratively cumbersome, licenses are normally issued to traders rather than to individual collectors. Due to its appealing aroma and valuable perfume, timur is used in the manufacture of several health-care products. Timur price is expected to reach Rs 70 per kg from Rs 50 following the decrease in its collection, said the association. In view of these characteristics, the degree of management intensity is primarily influenced by supply factors. This plan is prepared by the forest users in collaboration with forest officials. They were held with the members of two indigenous forest users groups (FUGs), one state-sponsored FUG, and two communities of forest users whose rights of use are based on residence in a ward. The control of collection techniques ensured a sustainable future supply, while the setting of an opening date for collection allowed efficient labor investment, higher yield, better product quality, and a fair distribution of benefits among the forest users. Farmers mention that the trees are mainly disseminated by birds, who like the fruits. You might have heard about Nepali cuisine and maybe even tried it, but did you know that Nepali cuisine is considered generally healthier compared to other South Asian cuisines? Rather, both NTFP and wood resources may be more or less intensively managed and even cultivated (Gilmour 1990; Shepherd 1992; Wiersum 1996). In Salyan, there is a long tradition of collecting nontimber forest products; approximately 10,500 households (almost one third of all households) are involved in this activity. Steam distillation of dried fruits yields an essential oil that has deodorant and antiseptic properties; it is used in soaps and dental preparations. This is reflected in the occurrence of many timur shrubs or small trees around cultivated farmland. It is an integral part of Nepali curry powders and seasonings, and is a very popular spice in the country. To enhance understanding of the evolutionary processes in NTFP production and the factors that contribute to intensification in managing NTFP species, a case study of the dynamics in the production of timur (Zanthoxylum armatum) in Nepal is presented here. Hamro ban: In contrast to the sarkari ban forests, in the hamro ban forests, local people have often initiated management practices for timur collection. Our product export around the world and obtains the DFTQC certification on our products. In this model, different phases of people–plant interaction are arranged along a gradient of increasing input of human energy per unit of exploited land, from uncontrolled utilization through controlled utilization to protection and maintenance to purposeful regeneration. The first category consists of forests over which local people claim no rights, even though they may use them, often on the basis of open access. Although it is known that induced innovations in forest management may occur, for most NTFP species, it is not yet clear whether such changes are taking place, and if so, what the precise nature of those changes is and which factors influence them. Collection of timur in the forest was restricted to the members of a forest user group living in a specific community. When prices continued to increase, farmers also began to transplant timur seedlings from the forests onto their own farmland. The collectors receive 50% of the collected products. Description: Shrub or small tree. His name Temur means "Iron" in the Chagatai language, his mother-tongue (cf. It is an indigenous spice mostly found in the warmer valley of the Himalayan region of India, Nepal and Bhutan. The process of gradual intensification in timur production is also associated with political and legislative changes. In this case, market demand rather than supply factors is the dominating influence in developing management practices. Cookies help us deliver our services. This price has continuously increased from NRs 9/kg in 1985 to NRs 22/kg in 1993 and NRs 45/kg in 1995. Cultivation of timur on private lands only became an attractive proposition after the legalization of private land ownership. Nepali Calendar in Nepal is called as nepali Patro. Where forest cover is locally abundant and population densities are low, tree management exists, but is usually passive. In both pine and oak forests, timur (Zanthoxylum armatum) grows naturally as an understory species. Quickly popping in to share “Tomato Timur Achar”, a full-flavored tomato sauce that is best served with mo:mo and chatamari. Ingredients : Red Chilli, Garlic, Timmur, Sunflower Oil & Salt. Cultivation of timur on private lands further increased production efficiency. In addition to the increasing market prices for timur, other socioeconomic changes also stimulated intensification of timur management. As indicated by the example of timur, these different phases are not discrete. The turmeric, coriander, cumin, and ajwain are in plastic bags from the Indian supermarket in Berkeley; the timur is in a jar and was brought straight back from Nepal. Flowers 3-4 mm in diametre, small, yellow, in panicles. Revisa las traducciones de 'Timur' en Español. Since the early 1990s, increased attention has been given to the extraction of nontimber forest products (NTFPs) from natural forests as a means of reconciling rural development and environmental conservation. Timur is a branched, scandent, or erect shrub or a small tree, 6 m tall or more, with dense foliage (Figure 2). It is naturally a vegan, gluten-free recipe. The fruits and seeds are employed as an aromatic tonic in fever and dyspesia. By using our services, you agree to our use of cookies. The forest management situation in Salyan is rather complex, as there are several types of property and access to forests. Nepal pepper - Szechwan pepper, Sichuan pepper, Chinese pepper, (Z. armatum) - Timmur - (टिम्मुर, तिम्बुर) Also known as ban timmur or Nepali pepper, this is a highly pungent, sharp tasting dried berry from the prickly ash shrub family. Photo about Timur nepali herb plants. Consulta los ejemplos de traducción de Timur en las frases, escucha la pronunciación y aprende gramática. An extract of the fruits is reported to be effective in expelling roundworms. A prerequisite for this is an operational plan approved by the District Forest Officer, which serves as a contract between the Forest Department and local users. Approximately 70% of the total value of the NTFPs collected is attributed to the fruits of this species (Table 1). The essential oil is said to possess antiseptic, disinfectant and deodorant properties. Shop online in USA with Nepal eMarket. As population pressures increase, farmers may respond by leaving more trees during land clearance and by more intensively managing the remaining tree cover by practices such as coppicing, pollarding and pruning, which result in higher total production. In contrast to earlier Nepalese studies, increased market price rather than increased scarcity was found to be the most important factor inducing intensification. In conclusion, our data show that NTFP production is not limited to extraction from natural forests but that different types of production systems may exist. This gives them the legally and socially sanctioned right to exclude others and effectively to resist unwanted intrusions, backed by the power of the state (Cernea 1989). In Nepali, Z. alatum is known as timur, while in Tibetan, it is known as yer ma and in Bhutan as thingay. This functionality is provided solely for your convenience and is in no way intended to replace human translation. Most of this manufacturing takes place in India, which therefore has a well-established commercial outlet for dried timur fruits (Edwards 1996; Den Hertog 1997). The collection season in indigenous managed forests is short, as the largest quantity is collected on the opening day. Parts Used: Roots, bark, leaves, fruits, seeds. Allozymic, Morphological, Phenological, Linguistic, Plant Use, and Nutritional Data on... Allozymic, Morphological, Phenological, Linguistic, Plant Use, and Nutritional Data of... Who Should Lead Us? Many of these practices are socially oriented and ensure distribution of forest products to local user groups as well as control of outsiders. Thus, the rules on timur harvesting in community- and indigenous-managed forests allow equity in the distribution of resource benefits and efficiency in investment of labor as well as in maintenance of production. The most important nontimber forest products are listed in Table 1. Because of their deodorant, disinfectant and antiseptic properties, the fruits are used in dental troubles, and their lotion for scabies. Nepali Mann Udhyog Timur Ko Chhop, Farnborough, Hampshire. The reason for doing so was not because timur was becoming scarce in the user-group managed forests. Several authors have suggested that extraction of NTFPs from natural forests should not be conceived as a discrete activity but rather as the first stage in a process of gradual domestication of valuable NTFP species (Homma 1992; Wiersum 1996). Nepali Fruits English Names. The government-owned forests consist of national forests that are legally controlled by the forest service. A community forest is a national forest handed over to a user group for its conservation, development, and utilization for collective benefit (Gilmour and Fisher 1991). For example, to harvest trees, the landowner needs the permission of the forest user committee, and payment of a royalty may be involved. In addition, regulations on collection techniques may be formulated in order to enhance regeneration and production of timur, for example, by prohibiting felling or branch lopping of timur bushes or using sickles for fruit collection. Such credits are not provided to collectors who depend on the production of timur in forests managed by user groups. As it is fairly easy to grow timur, it is worthwhile to invest some labor in establishing denser stands. Access to timur resources varies depending on the season, land tenure, location of private property, and type of timur use. Assuming that 1 working day is needed for the collection of 4 kilos of timur, more than 120,000 (wo)man days per year (an average of 12 working days per household) are required in the Salyan district to pick the fruit during the collecting season. The aim of the interviews was to obtain information on the location and amounts of timur production, the collecting periods, and the contribution of timur to the collectors' household economies. Whether intensification takes place depends on both supply and demand factors. An institutional or society member subscription is required to view non-Open Access content. In Nepal, there is a long tradition of collecting nontimber forest products as a source of income. In the community forests, villagers only have access to forest products, but the forestland remains state owned. Within the study area, five communities with a total population of approximately 2100 persons were selected on the basis of different property regimes and access situations with regard to collection of timur. The claim entails exclusive and private usufruct rights, but regulations for collecting timur are similar to those in the rest of the hamro ban forest. Nepali Kitchen is full of spices. It is situated at the northern side of the Mahabarat mountain range, which acts as a barrier to the monsoon and is responsible for relatively low precipitation in the area. 555 likes. The bark is pungent and used to clean teeth. The demand factors include marketing conditions, prices, and degree of substitutability. The communities were defined on the basis of common use rights to a particular patch of communal (forest)land rather than on the basis of administrative criteria such as wards or village development committees. It's tangy and fresh and a great side for dinner or lunch. English Name: Prickly ash, Nepal Pepper, Toothache tree, Sichuan Pepper, Parts Used: Roots, bark, leaves, fruits, seeds, Habit and Habitat: Himalaya (Kashmir to Bhutan), N India, east to China. Common Name: Timur. Neither BioOne nor the owners and publishers of the content make, and they explicitly disclaim, any express or implied representations or warranties of any kind, including, without limitation, representations and warranties as to the functionality of the translation feature or the accuracy or completeness of the translations. In theory, other trees yielding edible fruits could also be cultivated on these terraces. Timur shrubs were also increasingly tolerated on private lands. In Nepal, there is a tradition of giving Jwanoko jhol to a pregnant woman during her post-pregnancy period, children or people suffering from cold and people who are physically weak due to sickness as the soup is considered to be good for … In the past, villagers cut the shrubs of timur around their cropland for local use as fuelwood. The application of biologically oriented management practices, such as stimulation of regeneration and production, is more likely to occur on privately controlled lands. A study by Gilmour (1990) mainly concerned tree species used for household needs, for example, fuelwood and fodder. Approximately 200 structured interviews with local timur collectors were conducted with the help of a standard questionnaire. The fourth factor contributing to increased timur cultivation on private lands is the fact that farmers can use their future yields as collateral for loans and commodity advances from village shopkeepers. They optimize the condition of the young seedlings from natural regrowth by thinning and transplanting. Timur collection often takes place alongside other work in the forest, such as fuelwood and fodder collection. Besides this financial aspect, farmers also indicated several other factors that contributed to the intensification of timur management. There are three de jure forms and four de facto forms of property regimes for forests (Gilmour and Fisher 1991; Den Hertog 1997): Where no claims are made by local people (sarkari ban). (Photo by W.H. He was also the first ruler in the Timurid dynasty. In each community, both qualitative and quantitative data were collected on the importance of timur production at both household and community levels and on the way in which timur production is organized.

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