Naryn-Kala - an ancient fortress towering over Derbent. The 7th century fortress and the city walls once provided a bulwark against invaders from the north. Its current historic layout, street patterns, and building use are supported by historical and archaeological evidence, such as artefacts, ancient writings, old maps and plans. Derbentâs status as a World Heritage property and a monument of federal importance under State protection allows the conservation of all architectural objects and the archaeological and cultural layers that reflect cityâs evolution. In 1387, Timur conquered Azerbajan and Derbent shah Ibrahim I Derbendi was ready to subordinate to him. Federal Districts: Derbent resembles a huge museum and has magnificent mountains and shore nearby, and therefore possesses much touristic potential, further increased by UNESCO's classification of the citadel, ancient city and fortress as a World Heritage Site in 2003; however, instability in the region has retarded development.. Post-Conflict and Post-Disaster Responses, Astronomy and World Heritage Thematic Initiative, Human Evolution: Adaptations, Dispersals and Social Developments (HEADS), Initiative on Heritage of Astronomy, Science and Technology, Initiative on Heritage of Religious Interest, Natural World Heritage in the Congo Basin, Recommendation on the Historic Urban Landscape, Reducing Disasters Risks at World Heritage Properties, World Heritage and Sustainable Development, World Heritage and Sustainable Tourism Programme, World Heritage Centreâs Natural Heritage Strategy, World Heritage Earthen Architecture Programme (WHEAP). More Contacts Site Map Become a member Donate Now! Republic From that time, the population of the town was rapidly turned into Islam. The lighthouse is equipped with a lamp and modern optics whereby a signal can be viewed at a distance of 18 nautical miles. The site stands on the debris of the northern walls of Derbentâs fortress. The level of authenticity of the complex is high. The ancient Greek historian Herodotus mentioned “Derbentsky pass” in the 5th century B.C. The ancient Greek historian Herodotus mentioned âDerbentsky passâ in the 5th century B.C. De stenen vesting bestond uit twee parallelle muren die een barriÃ¨re vormden van de kust tot aan de berg. Derbent en haar verdedigingswerken vormden het belangrijkste deel van de strategische defensiesystemen van het Sassanidische rijk. The town was the crossroads of civilizations connecting East and West, North and South. Within the historic town, many buildings survive including courtyard houses, public buildings, mosques, baths, madrasahs, and the remains of a caravanserai. The Roman Empire was greatly interested in the town, it organized its first expedition in 290-281 B.C. Directed by Martin Scorsese. Between the parallel defence walls, the city was built with the commercial sector close to the waterfront and the residential buildings near the citadel. The town has a sea port, and a railway station on the line Makhachkala - Baku. A total of nine out of the original 14 ancient gates survive. North West | Central | Volga | South | North Caucasus | Ural | Siberia | Far East. 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Despite some loss to original fabric, including the 19th-century demolition of the south wall, much of the site has been preserved. Archaeological research is ongoing for non-excavated parts that conserve the authentic remains of the original buildings. Derbent prospered for over 1,500 years under Persian, Arab, Turkish, Azeri, Mongol, Timurid, and Russian rule due to its position on the Silk Road and geostrategic importance as the gateway to the Caucasus. WebGL must be enable. It is not permitted to go in as it is in working order. It was the largest medieval town in the Caucasus with developed crafts and agriculture. Criterion (iv): The ancient city of Derbent and its defence structures are the most significant section of the strategic defence systems designed and built in the Sasanian Empire along their northern limes, and maintained during the successive governments until the Russian occupation in the 19th century. On August 23, 1722, Peter I arrived in Derbent with a large army. In 1840s and later, it experienced rapid economic growth. In 2003, UNESCO included the old part of Derbent with traditional buildings in the World Heritage List, highlighting the following sites: Derbent Wall - a double wall built in the Sassanid times that completely closed the Caspian pass and went far into the sea forming a port. Built as fortifications soon after the Romans captured Córdoba, the walls stretched some 2,650 m, completely surrounding the city. The fortress acquired the outlook preserved till nowadays. And when Timur asked: “Why 9 packs of everything, but just 8 slaves?” Ibrahim I Derbendi answered: “the ninth slave is me”. Derbent Historical and Architectural Museum (Rzayeva Street, 7). In the early 18th century, when there was a threat of Iran and Turkish invasion in the Caspian region, Peter I committed his famous Persian (Caspian) expedition (1722-1723). km. Two walls were constructed 300 to 400Â m apart, extending approximately 3.6Â km from the Caspian Sea up to the citadel situated on the mountain. Evidence was found of a fortified settlement in the region of the citadel during the 3rd century BCE and 4th century CE, which was confirmed by historical documents; Greek-Roman authors knew this settlement by the name of Albanian gate and meanwhile the ancient Armenian authors called it the Chol/Chor. The population of Derbent is about 121,000 (2015), the area - 69.63 sq. Derbent was an important part of the Great Silk way. Nice restaurant facilities nearby as well. It is affected by the Caspian Sea. Moreover, the cityâs historic layout has been preserved with the relationship of the citadel, remaining north wall, and winding street pattern in the medieval town which continues to have a residential population. Wall in Naryn-Kala fortress View of Derbent city. The southern wall of Derbent, parallel to the first, is preserved only along the upper or western part of the city and in small areas in other places. Its destruction began after the Russian conquest, when the growing lower part of the city of the European type, not fitting â¦ Scientists and professionals who came with his escort made the first description of historical monuments. Ze zijn in stand gehouden tijdens de opeenvolgende regeringen tot de Russische bezetting in de 19e eeuw. Museum of Culture and Life of Ancient Derbent (Rzayeva Street, 7). From the 5th century, the town rapidly grew and fortifications were constructed in order to prevent Asia from nomads’ attacks - Turkish tribes of the Huns and Khazars. It is a well-protected monument and you can only have a look at it from outside. There is a legend that says that Ibrahim I Derbendi sent Timur a gift: gold - 9 packs, silver - 9 packs and so on, slaves - 8 persons. The modern name of Derbent (from Persian dar, âgateâ, and band, âred, communication, barrierâ) is associated with a great fortification constructed in the 5th century by the Sasanian Empire. Derbent is located in Russiaâs Dagestan region, on the western coast of the Caspian Sea. The museum-reserve also takes care of the conservation of its historical and cultural heritage, regularly monitors the technical condition of the monuments and the whole territory, and provides access to the cultural interests and their participation in cultural life. Juma Mosque - the most ancient mosque in Russia. Stone, the primary building material for the walls and historic buildings, is visible throughout the site. La ciudadela, la ciudad vieja y la fortaleza de Derbent formaban parte del dispositivo de defensa de la frontera septentrional del imperio persa de los sasÃ¡nidas, que se extendÃa por el este y el oeste del Mar Caspio. The view of Derbent is great and the actual fortress itself is very well taken care of. The article describes a Muslim grave, dated 915 A.H. (1509-10 A.D.), found near the citadel of Derbent. ÐºÐ°Ð¼Ð½Ñ, Ð²ÐºÐ»ÑÑÐ°ÑÑ Ð´Ð²Ðµ ÐºÑÐµÐ¿Ð¾ÑÑÐ½ÑÐµ ÑÑÐµÐ½Ñ, ÐºÐ¾ÑÐ¾ÑÑÐµ Ð¸Ð´ÑÑ Ð¿Ð°ÑÐ°Ð»Ð»ÐµÐ»ÑÐ½Ð¾ Ð´ÑÑÐ³ Ð´ÑÑÐ³Ñ Ð¾Ñ Ð±ÐµÑÐµÐ³Ð° Ð¼Ð¾ÑÑ Ð´Ð¾ Ð³Ð¾Ñ. The combination of unique monuments of history, architecture and archaeology together with wonderful nature landscapes and favorable climate make the whole region an important center of inner and international tourism. Derbent has largely maintained its original form and provides impressive evidence of the cityâs greatness and power in different historic periods over 15 centuries â Arab, Seljuk, Mongol, Timurid and Safavid periods until the 19th century when it became part of the Russian Empire. It was in the position to control the traffic between Europe and the Middle East, and shield the prospering agricultural peoples of the Middle East from devastating raids of nomadic â¦ Derbent contains two walls that are located approximately 300-400 m apart and extend nearly 4 km (2.5 miles) from the mountain citadel to the Caspian Sea. Physical evidence of Derbentâs defensive role dates from the 7th or 8th century BCE, and, since the 1st millenniumÂ BC, control of the north-south passage on the western side of the Caspian Sea has been linked to this location. Derbentâs splendid twin stone walls stretching from the mountains to the sea was built during this period. The citadel is surrounded on three sides by steep slopes and has massive stone walls between 2.5Â m and 3.2Â m thick, over 700Â m in length and 10 to 15Â m in height. De citadel, oude stad en de vestingswerken van Derbent maakten deel uit van de noordelijke linies van het Sassanidische Perzische Rijk, dat zich uitstrekte ten oosten en westen van de Kaspische Zee. Autumn is usually long and warm; spring comes with a delay; winter is mild, the coldest month is February; summer is long and hot. Museum “Caspian Nature” (Lenina Street, 64). In the 5th century Derbent also functioned as a border fortress and the seat of a Sassanid marzban. The historic core of the town with its winding narrow streets survives, although a new main street was inserted. Dagestan. Derbent took a special place in Peter’s the Great plans. Wall in Naryn-Kala fortress and view of Derbent city. Hasta finales del siglo XIX este sitio tuvo una gran importancia en el plano estratÃ©gico. Fortifications combined with the medieval buildings of the old part of the city, the so-called Magalims, form a unique cultural landscape. The city has a cognac plant producing famous Derbent cognacs, and a sparkling wine plant - the only plant in Russia producing sparkling wine in souvenir and even crystal bottles. These walls also extend nearly 500 m (1640 ft) into the Caspian sea itself to protect Derbentâs harbor. In 66-65 B.C., military expeditions to the Caucasus headed by Lucullus and Pompeus took place, one of their objectives was to conquer Derbent. The Derbent wall in Uzbekistan is marked on this map, and the Himalayan mountains are North of India and run into Pakistan, it is the dark raised Area on the map. Copyright © 2007 – 2020 russiatrek.org. The 20m walls with thirty north-looking towers are believed to belong to the time of Kavadh's son, Khosrau I, who also directed the construction of Derbent's fortress.Kevin Alan Brook. ÐÐ½ Ð¿ÑÐ¾Ð´Ð¾Ð»Ð¶Ð°Ð» Ð±ÑÑÑ Ð²Ð°Ð¶Ð½ÑÐ¼ Ð² ÑÑÑÐ°ÑÐµÐ³Ð¸ÑÐµÑÐºÐ¾Ð¼ Ð¾ÑÐ½Ð¾ÑÐµÐ½Ð¸Ð¸ Ð¼ÐµÑÑÐ¾Ð¼ Ð²Ð¿Ð»Ð¾ÑÑ Ð´Ð¾ XIX Ð². National composition of Derbent population (2010): Lezgins (33.7%), Azerbaijanis (32.3%), Tabasarans (15.8%), Dargins (5.6%), Russians (3.7%), Aguls (3.2%), Armenians (1.2%), Jews (1.1%), Rutuls (0.8%), others (2.6%). This is a must-visit for understanding the Derbent can claim to be the oldest occupied city in Russia, and it is the southernmost Russian city, lying only 50 km (31 miles) from the border with Azerbaijan. In the face of a $54.3 billion two-year deficit driven by the coronavirus pandemic, the $133.9 billion budget for the fiscal year beginning Wednesday will start to build that wall up again. All work to ensure conservation and protection of monuments within operational management is carried out in strict compliance with norms of federal and republican legislation. September 19, 2015, the 2000th anniversary of Derbent was celebrated. The World Heritage property âThe Citadel, Ancient City and Fortress Buildings of Derbentâ includes all necessary attributes demonstrating its Outstanding Universal Value, which are located inside the protected boundaries of its territory. Identified threats to the site are landslides, particularly along the citadelâs steep slopes, uncontrolled development in the area near the sea, and the looting of stones by residents for personal use. In the early Middle Ages, struggle for the Caucasus was continued by Byzantine and Iraq. A new stage in the development of Derbent was related to the invasion of the Arabs in the 7th century. It was the beginning of scientific research of Derbent. Its ancient name, “Caspian Gates”, was first mentioned in the 6th century B.C. Construida entre ambas murallas, la ciudad de Derbent ha conservado una parte de su estructura urbana medieval. Two walls were constructed 300 to 400 m apart, extending approximately 3.6 km from the Caspian Sea up to the citadel situated on the mountain. At this time, Dzhuma mosque was constructed. In 1606, Derbent became part of Persia. A management plan is currently being developed. For he is our peace, who has made both one, and has broken down the middle wall of partition between us; our. ÐÐ¾ÑÐ¾Ð´ ÐÐµÑÐ±ÐµÐ½Ñ ÑÐ»Ð¾Ð¶Ð¸Ð»ÑÑ Ð¼ÐµÐ¶Ð´Ñ ÑÑÐ¸Ñ Ð´Ð²ÑÑ ÑÑÐµÐ½ Ð¸ ÑÐ¾Ñ ÑÐ°Ð½Ð¸Ð» Ð´Ð¾ Ð½Ð°ÑÑÐ¾ÑÑÐµÐ³Ð¾ Ð²ÑÐµÐ¼ÐµÐ½Ð¸ ÑÐ²Ð¾Ð¹ ÑÑÐµÐ´Ð½ÐµÐ²ÐµÐºÐ¾Ð²ÑÐ¹ Ñ Ð°ÑÐ°ÐºÑÐµÑ. Derbent Historical-Architectural and Art Museum-Reserve has the responsibility for the management of the buildings within the property that have been identified as monuments of historical and cultural heritage. Within the citadel, the ruins and archaeological remains of a number of buildings are found, including the Khanâs Palace, a bath, several underground water tanks, a 5th-century Christian church, and an 8th-century mosque, one of the earliest in the former Soviet Union. Wilhelmus de Rubruquis in describing the walls of Derbent (1254) relates that the whole country was largely inhabited by Jews (G. de Roubrouck, "Récit de Son Voyage," p. 280, Paris, 1877). Lezgin State Music and Drama Theater named after Suleyman Stalsky. Before the mosque, there is a madrassas of the 15th century. The old town of Derbent was built between these two walls. Today, the Derbent Wall runs into territory currently flooded by the Caspian Sea and, according to a report by the 19th century British traveller Charles Edward Yate, so too is the âRed Snakeâ. Criterion (iii): The site of the ancient city of Derbent has been crucial for the control of the north-south passage on the west side of the Caspian Sea since the 1st millennium BCE. In 1735, Derbent became part of Iran again. Isaiah 9:6,7 For unto us a child is born, unto us a son is given: and the government shall be upon his shoulder: and his name shall be called Wonderful, Counseller, The mighty God, The everlasting Father, The Prince of Peaceâ¦  Eastern Christian sources located Alexanderâs Wall at the Caucasian Gates, the Caspian Gates, the Derbent Pass (in present-day Daghestan), and the Darial Pass (on the border of present-day Russian and Georgia). The phone code - +7 87240, the postal code - 368600. Movses Kagankatvatsi left a graphic description o the sack o Derbent bi the hordes o Tong Yabghu o the Wastren Turkic Khaganate in 627. It lies on the federal highway M29 (Rostov-na-Donu - Baku). Management for the World Heritage property is the responsibility of the Ministry of Culture of the Russian Federation with the Ministry of Culture of the Republic of Dagestan, which is considered the territorial authorized executive body. The only other practicable crossing of the Caucasus ridge was over the Darial Gorge. The walls of Derbent illustrate the fundamental trouble with barriers. Inside, you can see preserved baths, water tanks in case of siege, and the ruins of ancient buildings. Although the defensive use of the citadel is no longer required, authenticity of form and design is evident in the old buildings between the fortress walls. From 1846, it became part of Dagestan region.
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