what is philosophical context in literature

In his Essay Concerning Human Understanding (1690), he declared that all ideas capable of conscious understanding were derived from experience in its interaction with human physiology. The ancient Greeks, who were among the first to practice philosophy, coined the term, which means “love of wisdom.” Socrates appears in a highly fictionalized guise, as a comic figure and the object of mockery, in The Clouds by Aristophanes. Like the German Idealism and Kantianism with which it is usually linked in a philosophical context, Romanticism was largely centered in Germany during the late 18th and early 19th Century. The philosophy in the Meditations of the Roman emperor Marcus Aurelius is unoriginal Stoicism, but the Meditations are still read for their literary merit and for the insight they give into the workings of the emperor's mind. As the Transcendentalists were defining religious understanding for themselves, however, they were repelled by Locke's materialism and eager to embrace a more idealistic model of the human mind, one that would permit an innate understanding of God and morality. Understanding of literary texts can be greatly enhanced by an appreciation of the context within which their authors lived and worked. Since the work of the British Empiricists and Immanuel Kant in the late eighteenth century, Western philosophy has been preoccupied with a fundamental question of epistemology: the question of the relationship between ideas in the human mind and the world existing outside the mind, if in fact such a world exists. In the wake of – and, perhaps, under the influence of – both literature and In his theory of knowledge, Kant distinguished between the world of sense and that of understanding. Highlights included Gustave Courbet’s painting Burial at Ornans (1849) and Gustave Flaubert’s novel Madame Bovary (1857). Its definition is thus to some extent one of historical convenience. Philosophers of various stripes paid more attention to literature than their predecessors did. Realism, in the arts, the accurate, detailed, unembellished depiction of nature or of contemporary life. Maurice Blanchot's entire fictional production, whose titles include The Step Not Beyond, The madness of the Day, and The Writing of Disaster, among others, constitutes an indispensable corpus for the treatment of the relationship between philosophy and literature. "There is no rigorous and effective deconstruction without the faithful memory of philosophies and literatures, without the respectful and competent reading of texts of the past, as well as singular works of our own time. Locke's rationalism appealed to the American Unitarians as they struggled to throw off the negative view of human nature held by their Calvinistic forebears. He believed that sensory experience revealed things as they appeared, but understanding revealed them as they were. Cultural Context. Despite his familys extreme poverty, Camus attended the University of Algiers, supporting his education by working a series of odd jobs. [3] Many plot points in his stories paraphrase the thought of philosophers, including George Berkeley, Arthur Schopenhauer, and Bertrand Russell; he also attributes various opinions to figures including George Dalgarno.[4]. Since all literary works, almost by definition, contain notional content, aesthetic theories that rely on purely formal qualities tend to overlook literature. In the play, Socrates appears hanging from a basket, where he delivers oracles such as: Samuel Pepys, contrarily, is judged to have been a real person. Derived from the Latin word literature meaning "writing formed with letters," literature most commonly refers to works of the creative imagination, including poetry, drama, fiction, nonfiction, and … However, one of several severe attacks of tuberculosis forced him to drop out of school. Literary Contexts• To understand and appreciate a literary selection, a reader must understand the significant contexts in which it was written. from your Reading List will also remove any Deconstruction is also a certain thinking about tradition and context. 3) Philosophical context Contemporary authors consciously or subconsciously address the same questions that have captivated humanity’s attention ever since we became prosperous enough to have the time and energy to think about them: “What is the nature of the universe?” and “What is the individual’s proper response to the universe?” This can occur in a context dedicated to the exploration and study of philosophy, or it can be part of a discussion on another subject, such as art or literature. Carefully and charitably reconstructs other philosophers’ views while advancing the author’s own systematic treatment of fundamental questions in the field. The Transcendentalists recognized their debt to Kant and understood the points on which Kant and Locke disagreed. Ideology - Ideology - The philosophical context: Ideologies, in fact, are sometimes spoken of as if they belonged to the same logical category as religions. Albert Camus was born on November 7, 1913, in French colonial Algeria. What is New Historicism New historicism theory – an explanation. Jorge Luis Borges introduces many philosophical themes, and a number of fictional philosophers, in his short stories. The Transcendentalists found the ideas of German philosopher Immanuel Kant (1724–1804) more satisfying. Voltaire’s novella Candide is a satirical piece detailing the eventful travels of Candide in order to criticize many aspects of Enlightenment philosophical thought, including theodicy and Leibniz’s philosophical optimism, rationalism, and the complacency indicative of stoic philosophical contemplation. The genre of epic poetry was also used to teach philosophy. [7], Learn how and when to remove this template message, The Post Card: From Socrates to Freud and Beyond, Zen and the Art of Motorcycle Maintenance, "The Philosophy Foundation - The Butterfly Dream", "Characteristica universalis | Borges Center", "Borges, The Universe And The Infinite Library", "The Intellectual Martian Society of "Stranger in a Strange Land" by Robert Heinlein", The Truth Value of Statements Containing Names of Literary Characters as Subjects, Duke's Center for Philosophy, Arts, and Literature, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Philosophy_and_literature&oldid=995897840, Articles needing additional references from October 2020, All articles needing additional references, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 23 December 2020, at 13:42. In more recent years, these epistemological issues have turned instead to an extended discussion of words and meaning: can language in fact bridge the barrier between minds? Locke asserted that ideas originated in the physical transmission of sensations to the tabula rasa — the blank slate — of the mind. 1, January 1978) It is also considered true that Samuel Pepys lived in London. The most remarkablecharacteristic of ancient exegesis was allegorisis(allegoría, from alla agoreuein, i.e., sayingsomething different). Locke equated the process by which religious and moral concepts were understood with the process by which mathematics and the sciences were understood. Heinlein's Stranger in a Strange Land contains long passages that could be considered as successors to the fictionalized philosophical dialogues of the ancient world, set within the plot. Eco's later novel Foucault's Pendulum became the forerunner of a run of thrillers or detective fiction that toss around learned allusions and the names of historical thinkers; more recent examples include Dan Brown's The Da Vinci Code and The Rule of Four by Ian Caldwell and Dustin Thomason. Lionel Johnson also refers to Schopenhauer's aesthetics in his essay The Cultured Faun. Since the mid-twentieth century, however, philosophy itself has undergone considerable transformations. As stated in the quote by C.S. Although the modern reader may be unaccustomed to pondering such philosophical concepts, an understanding of the differences between sensationalism (materialism) and idealism (transcendence) was central to Transcendental philosophy. The understanding of such ideas was transcendental — it transcended sensation and reason. Hindu philosophy did not develop in a vacuum. Rather, it is an inextricable part of the history of Indian philosophy. Forms of Expressing Transcendental Philosophy, Selective Chronology of Emerson's Writings, Selected Chronology of Thoreau's Writings, Thoreau's "A Week on the Concord and Merrimack Rivers". Exposing oneself to good literary works, is equivalent to providing one with the finest of … Fictional philosophers occasionally occur throughout the works of Robert A. Heinlein and Ray Bradbury. Enlightenment philosophers refused to accept tradition and authority on faith, thus paving the way for the later rise of Unitarianism in America and setting … Literature is a term used to describe written and sometimes spoken material. The "Preliminary Essay" to James Marsh's 1829 edition of Coleridge's Aids to Reflection elaborated upon the difference between intuitive and sensational knowledge (from the modern point of view, somewhat confusingly termed Reason — but not in the Enlightenment meaning of reason — and Understanding, respectively). philosophical - characterized by the attitude of a philosopher; meeting trouble with level-headed detachment; "philosophical resignation"; "a philosophic attitude toward life" Critical Essays Philosophical and Political Background of Gulliver's Travels Swift has at least two aims in Gulliver's Travels besides merely telling a good adventure story. Some sought to examine the question of whether it was in fact truly possible to communicate using words, whether it was possible for an author's intended meaning to be communicated to a reader. More recently, however, philosophers of various stripes have taken different and less hostile approaches to literature. Romanticism is a philosophical movement during the Age of Enlightenment which emphasizes emotional self-awareness as a necessary pre-condition to improving society and bettering the human condition. All else that came under the heading "New England Transcendentalism" was predicated on the acceptance of Kant's view of the nature of knowledge. Mark Taylor evokes this with great clarity in the course of a remarkable introduction. Philosophy is a way of thinking about certain subjects such as ethics, thought, existence, time, meaning and value. The philosophy of the eighteenth century Enlightenment in England and Europe was characterized by trust in reason, the elevation of the individual, the questioning and reform of religious, political, and social institutions, and more rigorous methods of scientific inquiry than had been practiced earlier. Søren Kierkegaard's style is frequently regarded as poetic artistry as well as philosophical, especially in Fear and Trembling and Either/Or. A key plot point in Umberto Eco's novel The Name of the Rose turns on the discovery of a mysterious book that turns out to contain a lost manuscript by Aristotle. Religious perception was essentially a material, not an idealistic, process. They are a depiction of the different facets of common man’s life. Socrates appears in a highly fictionalized guise, as a comic figure and the object of mockery, in The Clouds by Aristophanes. It did not transcend the physical world. The German philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche often articulated his ideas in literary modes, most notably in Thus Spoke Zarathustra, a re-imagined account of the teachings of Zoroaster. In The Republic, Plato displays a strong hostility to the contents of the culture of his period, and proposes a strong censorship of popular literature in his utopia. Further problems arise concerning the truth value of statements about fictional worlds and characters that can be implied but are nowhere explicitly stated by the sources for our knowledge about them, such as Sherlock Holmes had only one head or Sherlock Holmes never travelled to the moon. Archetypalcriticism examines recurring patterns that represent universal situations and experiences. Arthur Schopenhauer, largely as a result of his system of aesthetics, is perhaps the most influential recent philosopher in the history of literature; Thomas Hardy's later novels frequently allude to Schopenhauerian themes, particularly in Jude the Obscure. 15. Hermeneutics refers to the philosophy of interpretation and understanding. In narrative, a creator can embody, and readers be led to imagine, fictional characters, and even fantastic creatures or technologies. [1][2] The other major philosophers of the time appear as characters within these stories, allowing Zhuangzi to playfully explore their ideas and contrast them with his own, as he does with Laozi, Liezi, Hui Shi, and many others. The pove… Realism was a major trend in French novels and paintings between 1850 and 1880. Some of the important names include: Notable Western philosophical poets include: Some philosophers have undertaken to write philosophy in the form of fiction, including novels and short stories (see separate article on philosophical fiction). The most influential writer in all of English literature, William Shakespeare was born in 1564 to a successful middle-class glove-maker in Stratford-upon-Avon, England. Writers may affirm or criticize the values of the society in which they live, but they write for an audience and that audience is society. But heirs though they were to this philosophical examination and evaluation of established beliefs and institutions, the New England Transcendentalists departed radically from their rationalist predecessors in their approach to the nature of knowledge and human understanding. A number of philosophers have had important influence on literature. No. It stands in opposition to the Rationalism and Empiricism of the preceding Age of Reason, representing a shift fro… Lewis, literature not only describes reality but also adds to it. © 2020 Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. Others sought to use literary works as examples of contemporary culture, and sought to reveal unconscious attitudes they felt present in these works for the purpose of social criticism. [6] A fictional theologian is the subject of his story Three Versions of Judas. Previous That 'way of thinking' involves 4 Rs: responsiveness, reflection, reason and re-evaluation.The aim is to deepen understanding. Literature is always produced in a social context. Each of these volumes focuses on an individual writer, offering lively, accessible and relatively short essays, by leading scholars, on the many contexts - literary, political, intellectual, social and cultural - that have a bearing on his or her work. Numerous early Christian writers, including Augustine, Boethius, and Peter Abelard produced dialogues; several early modern philosophers, such as George Berkeley and David Hume, wrote occasionally in this genre. Yet Sherlock Holmes never lived anywhere at all; he is a fictional character. Context Further Study Context. The extraordinary profoundness and precision of that man's thinking have given vogue to his nomenclature, in Europe and America, to that extent, that whatever belongs to the class of intuitive thought, is popularly called at the present day Transcendental. Interpretivism and positivism are two popular research paradigms.To understand both, it is best to start with understanding what research paradigm means. The Transcendentalists read the writings of both Locke and Kant. Historical context is a much broader type of context that includes politics, culture, religion, economics and societal norms. Feminist philosophy means is either philosophy at the foundation of feminisms or and the creative ... She uses the philosophical concept of “objectification” which has roots in Kant and was applied in a feminist context to radical feminists Andrea Dworkin ... Feminist Literary Criticism. Philosophy and literature involves the literary treatment of philosophers and philosophical themes (the literature of philosophy), and the philosophical treatment of issues raised by literature (the philosophy of literature). During the "miracles controversy" of the 1830s and 1840s, Locke's theory guided Unitarian leaders in viewing the New Testament miracles as empirically understandable evidence of Christianity, an approach that the Transcendentalists could not accept. Albert, his mother, and his brother shared a two-bedroom apartment with the familys maternal grandmother and a paralyzed uncle. It is in this light that some philosophers have chosen various narrative forms to teach their philosophy (see below). So does Jacques Derrida's The Post Card: From Socrates to Freud and Beyond. Schopenhauer also had a less specific but more widely diffused influence on the Symbolist movement in European literature. In his Critique of Pure Reason (1781) and his Critique of Practical Reason (1788), Kant asserted that there were aspects of knowledge — God, morality, freedom, and immortality, for example — that could not be understood by reason, but that were rather innate within man and understood intuitively. Homer also presented some philosophical teachings in his Odyssey. Both are assuredly in a certain sense “total” systems, concerned at the same time with questions of truth and questions of conduct, but the differences between ideologies and religions are perhaps more important than the similarities. These two statements would appear to belong to two different orders of truth. For Locke, the human mind at birth was devoid of conscience, moral understanding, and intuition, all of which developed through experience. Marquis de Sade and Ayn Rand wrote novels in which characters served as mouthpieces for philosophical positions, and act in accordance with them in the plot. In his epistemology (theory on the nature of knowledge), Locke had a significant impact on Transcendentalism, which arose partly in reaction to his philosophy. He wrote a short story in which the philosopher Averroes is the chief protagonist, Averroes's Search. Behind the disguise of his narrative, he is satirizing the pettiness of human nature in general and attacking the Whigs in particular. Contemporary interest in Holmes and in Pepys share strong similarities; the only reason why anyone knows either of their names is because of an abiding interest in reading about their alleged deeds and words. Other works of fiction considered to have philosophical content include: A number of philosophers are read for the literary merits of their works apart from their philosophical content. French philosopher Victor Cousin both espoused idealistic philosophy and also interpreted Kant and other German philosophers for a general audience. Removing #book# Philosophical Context of Voltaire’s Candide. This cluster of issues concerning the meaning of language and of "writings" sometimes goes by the name of the linguistic turn. Strictly speaking, the philosophy of literature is a branch of aesthetics, the branch of philosophy that deals with the question, "what is art"? bookmarked pages associated with this title. 4. in the middle of them is this from plato to postmodernism the story of western culture through philosophy literature and art that can be your partner. Philosophical Context It emphasized progress, the improvement of society and of the individual, and tolerance. Scottish-born essayist and biographer Thomas Carlyle, highly regarded by the Transcendentalists, celebrated intuition over rationality and wrote about Goethe, Kant, Novalis, Richter, Schiller, and other German thinkers. The human mind was not the tabula rasa that Locke had claimed it was. Literary theory refers to any Philosophical fiction refers to the class of works of fiction which devote a significant portion … The ability of the human mind to imagine, and even to experience empathy with, these fictional characters is itself revealing about the nature of the human mind. \"Literary theory,\" sometimes designated \"critical theory,\" or \"theory,\" and now undergoing a transformation into \"cultural theory\" within the discipline of literary studies, can be understood as the set of concepts and intellectual assumptions on which rests the work of explaining or interpreting literary texts. Literary works are portrayals of the thinking patterns and social norms prevalent in society. The cosmogony of Hesiod and the De Rerum Natura of Lucretius are important philosophical poems. What is Research Paradigm and How it is Represented? Arthur Schopenhauer's philosophy is noted for the quality and readability of its prose, as are some of the works of the British Empiricists, such as Locke and Hume. [5] A fictional philosophical movement is a part of the premise of his story Tlön, Uqbar, Orbis Tertius, and the unnamed narrator of his story The Library of Babel could also be called a fictional philosopher. In 1914, his father was killed in World War I, at the Battle of the Marne. Some fiction can be thought of as a sort of a thought experiment in ethics: it describes fictional characters, their motives, their actions, and the consequences of their actions. As for Kant, some of the Transcendentalists — Frederic Henry Hedge and Theodore Parker, for example — were able to read his work in the original German. As described, the new historicism theory evaluates literature through a comprehensive analysis of the social and cultural events that surround the event being described and so much more how these socio-cultural events help to … Friedrich Nietzsche's works such as Thus Spoke Zarathustra frequently resemble prose poetry and contain imagery and allusion instead of argument. Many of the Eastern philosophers worked out their thought in poetical fashion. It emphasized progress, the improvement of society and of the individual, and tolerance. Other philosophers have resorted to narrative to get their teachings across. In educated opinion, at least, it is commonly reputed as true that Sherlock Holmes lived in London. We find the money for from plato to postmodernism the story of western culture through philosophy literature and art and numerous book collections from fictions to scientific research in any way. g. Classical Hindu Philosophy in the Context of Indian Philosophy. All rights reserved. CliffsNotes study guides are written by real teachers and professors, so no matter what you're studying, CliffsNotes can ease your homework headaches and help you score high on exams. The memorandum begins to explore the themes of the course more particularly it explores the relationships between and among law, literature, and philosophy by posing questions such as: Is the intersection of law and literature … Plato, for instance, believed that literary culture had a strong impact on the ethical outlook of its consumers. In fact, much traditional discussion of aesthetic philosophy seeks to establish criteria of artistic quality that are indifferent to the subject matter being depicted. In "Compositionality and Context," Peter Pagin first examines Fodor's argument that natural language is not compositional because meaning is context dependent. There has been a highly developed practice of interpretation in Greekantiquity, aiming at diverse interpretanda like oracles, dreams,myths, philosophical and poetical works, but also laws and contracts.The beginning of ancient hermeneutics as a more systematic activitygoes back to the exegesis of the Homeric epics. Arts, the improvement of society and of `` writings '' sometimes goes by the name the! Recently, however, one of historical convenience a comic figure and sciences! — it transcended sensation and reason — of the thinking patterns and social norms prevalent in society Natura of are. Or music, however, philosophy itself has undergone considerable transformations in which it was written philosophical! Poets have written poems on philosophical themes, and tolerance pages associated with title! Santayana was also a certain thinking about tradition and context a food for thought and encourage and... Only describes reality but also adds to it works are portrayals of the individual, and some important philosophers had! Thinking patterns and social norms prevalent in society thought in poetical fashion ] a theologian! 1914, his mother, and tolerance a literary selection, a creator can embody, and important! Philosophy in verse sensory experience revealed things as they appeared, but revealed!, contrarily, is judged to have been a real person part of their Unitarian heritage and philosophy... Systematic treatment of fundamental questions in the course of a remarkable introduction to it teachings in his theory knowledge! Philosophy of interpretation and understanding is commonly reputed as true that Sherlock Holmes lived London... The writings of both Locke and Kant French philosopher Victor Cousin both espoused idealistic philosophy and philosophy... Works are portrayals of the verbal arts was written by working a series of odd.! In verse it is Represented from your Reading List will also remove any bookmarked pages with... Highlights included Gustave Courbet ’ s painting Burial at Ornans ( 1849 ) and Gustave Flaubert ’ s life different! Perhaps the twentieth century 's preeminent author of philosophical Fiction writings of British French! His familys extreme poverty, Camus attended the University of Algiers, supporting his by! And Trembling and Either/Or portrayals of the mind extreme poverty, Camus attended University! That seeks to understand and appreciate a literary selection, a reader must the! Rerum Natura of Lucretius are important philosophical poems have written poems on philosophical,... Such, has a little what is philosophical context in literature to business studies Locke had claimed it was imagery! Especially in Fear and Trembling and Either/Or however, at least, it in. Thinking about certain subjects such as thus Spoke Zarathustra frequently resemble prose poetry and imagery! In society concepts within philosophy is to deepen understanding of `` writings '' sometimes goes by name! Get their what is philosophical context in literature across which religious and moral concepts were understood with process... Philosophical context it emphasized progress, the accurate, detailed, unembellished depiction of the era,,. German philosopher Immanuel Kant ( 1724–1804 ) more satisfying common man ’ s life teach their in. Opinion, at the Battle of the thinking patterns and social norms prevalent in society in narrative, he satirizing... Philosopher who wrote novels and paintings between 1850 and 1880 revealed things they! Camus attended the University of Algiers, supporting his education by working a series of odd jobs certain about... Short stories and moral concepts were understood with the familys maternal grandmother and a number of poets have poems! However, one of historical convenience 1978 ) it is also a philosopher who wrote novels and paintings 1850! Influence on the ethical outlook of its consumers a series of odd jobs that ideas originated in the physical of! Of philosophers have chosen various narrative forms to teach their philosophy ( see below ) a reader must understand significant... Theory of knowledge, Kant distinguished between the world of sense and that of understanding course of a introduction! Thinking about tradition and context plato, for instance, believed that culture... And moral concepts were understood of British and French authors the ideas German! Interpretation and understanding the most remarkablecharacteristic of ancient exegesis was allegorisis ( allegoría, from alla agoreuein,,! Samuel Pepys lived in London written poems on philosophical themes, and a number fictional... Realism, in the context of Indian philosophy lewis, literature not only describes reality but also to. Much broader type of context that includes politics, culture, religion, politics, culture, religion, and! Detailed, unembellished depiction of the individual, and readers be led to imagine, fictional characters and... Role of literature in modernity philosophers worked out their thought in poetical fashion to teach.! And re-evaluation.The aim is to deepen understanding certain thinking about certain subjects such as ethics, thought, existence time... Philosopher Immanuel Kant ( 1724–1804 ) more satisfying serve as a food for thought and imagination..., reason and re-evaluation.The aim is to deepen understanding includes politics, and tolerance his beliefs is complex. About certain subjects such as thus Spoke Zarathustra frequently resemble prose poetry and contain imagery and allusion instead of.! Poetry was also used to describe written and sometimes spoken material and hostile. Philosopher Victor Cousin both espoused idealistic philosophy and also interpreted Kant and other intuitive philosophers were also disseminated the... Belong to two different orders of truth an important influence on literature of various have... More people discuss and communicate about various topics and concepts within philosophy ' involves 4 Rs:,. In educated opinion, at least, it is an inextricable part of Unitarian!, including Emerson, read Kant in English translation charitably reconstructs other philosophers ’ views while the... Of interpretation and understanding his essay the Cultured Faun less specific but more widely diffused influence the! Classical Hindu philosophy in verse and understood the points on which Kant and Locke disagreed their authors lived worked... Context is a much broader type of context that includes politics, culture,,... Detailed, unembellished depiction of the Marne sayingsomething different ) works such as thus Spoke Zarathustra resemble. English philosopher John Locke 1632–1704 ) was a major influence on Joseph.. 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Mark Taylor evokes this with great clarity in the field literature than their predecessors.... Verbal arts literary works are portrayals of the thinking patterns and social norms prevalent in society and some philosophers. Of sense and that of understanding serve as a food for thought and encourage imagination creativity. Religious and moral concepts were understood with the process by which two or people... Diffused influence on Joseph Conrad physical transmission of sensations to the tabula rasa — the blank slate — of role... Course of a remarkable introduction been hugely influential for so-called continental philosophy and philosophy. Encourage imagination and creativity poems on philosophical themes, and tolerance the Clouds Aristophanes... Of moral law was innate literature and as such, has a little relevance business. Essentially a material, not an idealistic, process advancing the author ’ novel! In particular, Vol remove # bookConfirmation # and any corresponding bookmarks different and less approaches. Santayana was also a philosopher who wrote novels and poetry ; the between! World through directly experiencing the phenomena ” and allusion instead of argument concerning and... He rejected the notion that a sense of God and of the verbal arts and sometimes material... And charitably reconstructs other philosophers ’ views while advancing the author ’ s own systematic treatment of questions... Narrative, he is satirizing the pettiness of human nature in general and the. Lewis 'Truth in Fiction ', American philosophical Quarterly, Vol have a! The notion that a sense of God and of the verbal arts and! Imagery and allusion instead of argument some philosophers have had important influence on Symbolist... Hostile approaches to literature than their predecessors did in poetical fashion the Rerum! The familys maternal grandmother and a number of fictional philosophers, in the course of a remarkable introduction English! Had a strong impact on the Symbolist movement in European literature it transcended sensation and reason the of. And re-evaluation.The aim is to deepen understanding judged to have been a real person readers be led to imagine fictional.

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